The history of the listed park and the manor house
On the one of the tourist route near Poznań, between Kórnik and Zaniemyśl, on the lake Wielkie Jeziory there is a village once called Wielkie Jeziory, these days Jeziory Wielkie, where is a spacious listed landscape park, a backhouse and a listed manor house.
In the first half of the XIVth century kin of Doliwa possessed Wielkie Jeziory. Before 1357 one of the daughter of that kin contributed Wielkie Jeziory as a dowry to the kin of Porajowie z Jankowa. In the XVth century Wielkie Jeziory passed into hands of the kin of Nałęczowie. It was held by Tomisław z Jezior, the brother of the Cracovian parish priest, the widow of the Tomisław and her sons – Dobrogost and Niemierza. Thereafter in 1497 Wielkie Jeziory was held by the colour-bearer from Poznań Tomisław Jezierski.
In the XVIIIth century Wielkie Jeziory was a part of the klucza dóbr zaniemyskich. In the 1782 Jeziory Wielkie was purchased by the magnate Tadeusz Jaraczewski. In the 1796 it was held by Józef Jaraczewski, and in the 1846 it was held by Skórzewski /St.Plater/.
Beginning on the half of the XIX century, Wielkie Jeziory was held consecutively (according to the land register volume I list 1 in the National Notarial Office in Środa Wielkopolska) by:
– the countess Ofelia Potulicka née Skórzewska – record 13.10.1849
– the count Zygmunt Grudziński from Drzązgów – record 24.09.1877
– the count Zygmunt Czarnecki from Rusko near Borek – record 04.09.1880
– the count Józef Czarnecki form Małe Jeziory – record 20.07.1883
Józef Czarnecki sold the property in Zaniemyśl to the Prussian junker Herman Kennemann. In the 1887 Herman Kennemann transferred Wielkie Jeziory to his daughter Jadwiga, who married Germanized Frenchman Jouanne. Until the end of the Second World War Jeziory Wielkie (and Łękno near Zaniemyśl) was held by the kin of Jouanne.
Jadwiga Kennemann married Germanized Frenchman Jouanne.
– Jadwiga Jouanne née Kennemann – record 27.06.1887
– Elżbieta Jouanne from Łękno – record 04.09.1933. E. Jouanne held the property until the end of the Second World War.
– State Treasury – record 28.09.1946
– Piotr Olejniczak – since 10.04.2001
After the Second World War arable land and the buildings were taken over by the National Agricultural Holding in Łękno. In the 1945 the park was taken over by Forest Inspectorate Kórnik (1945-1972). Subsequently it was held by the National Agricultural Holding in Łękno (1972 – 1984). In the years 1984-1987 the property was held by the Holiday Camp of the National Agricultural Holding in Błażejewko. Since 1987 the National Agricultural Holding in Łękno has been a user of the property (again).
Nowadays the park, the manor house and the backhouse is a private property.
In the middle of the XVIIth century on the central location of the former establishment the baroque manor house was erected. The manor house withstand till these days and it has been acknowledged as a precious historical monument of architecture by virtue of a decision of 29.06.1960 of the Voivodship Curator. The manor house is made of bricks and it is plastered. It is one-storeyed, it contains residential attic and it is built on a rectangular plan. On the pivot of the both front-views there are the front elevations on the two pillars supporting the open front porch. The sloping tiled hipped roof and the gable roof of the front-views are tiled.
Probably upon erecting the manor house, the park was established. This fact may be acknowledged by the trees growing in the park – the aged oaks, the locusts, the Austrian pines. The park is organized in a landscape style.
On the basis of the photocopy of the plan of the park dated back to the end of the XIXth century, there is no opportunity to define, if the park had been organized in other styles. Nevertheless, the space of the park has changed: the north part has been excluded and assigned for a yard. Furthermore the headland on the south-east corner has been excluded.
Moreover the stand composition had been changing. Before the first World War, in the park there were a lot of oaks, lindens, hornbeams, locusts and pines. In the period between the two World Wars the ashes, the maples, the horse chestnuts and the alnus glutinosa (alders) had appeared in the park. In the 1936 the oaks were planted on the south of the main access way, on the whole space of the former garden.
In the park there are a dozen or so old oaks. A few are hundred years old. A few have a trunk diameter of 100 cm. The oak growing near paddock has a trunk diameter of 420 cm and it is the best-preserved. This oak is the last oak growing in this location of the park that existed in the 1950s – according to the memories of the residents.
The biggest and the oldest tree is the oak which has a trunk diameter of 630 cm (though it is in a poor state and it is isolated – it is growing on the lake on the edge of the eastern part of the park). Nevertheless there is a strong competition in the surroundings (more precisely in a tab “surroundings”)
In turn the Austrian pine is unrivalled. It grows on the eastern part of the paddock and has a trunk diameter of 380 cm. According to the current data this Austrian pine is one of the biggest Austrian pines in Poland. Originally the Austrian pines were growing from Morocco and Spain through the Pyrenees Mountains, Alps, southern Carpathians up to Crimea. Austrian pine was imported in the 1759 as a park tree.
The entry avenue of hornbeam is also noteworthy. It is a younger sister of the commonly described avenue of the park in Łękno.
The afforestation includes Austrian pines (which have a trunk diameter of 70 – 79 cm), spruces, pines and larches.
This diverse tree stan is especially picturesque in autumn.
There are no specific historical events and prominent historical figures connected with the manor house and the park. Nevertheless the first non-polish owner, the German Kenneman, one of the author of the anti-Polish “Hakata” is noteworthly.
What is more, according to the certain historical analysis (A. Rogalska) the manor house dates back to an earlier period, that is to say to the second part of the XVIth century. If it is so, it would be the oldest persevered polish manor house.